CentOS建五个用户,均需要进行磁盘配额限制,每个用户的配额为
10MB (hard) 以及 8MB (soft)

0
环境
[root@localhost ~]# uname -a
Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Fri Nov 22
03:15:09 UTC 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
[root@localhost ~]# nl /etc/issue
    1  CentOS release 6.5 (Final)
    2  Kernel \r on an \m

1
建5用户vbirdN,这个是从鸟哥那借的
[root@linuxidc ~]# vi au.sh
#!/bin/bash
groupadd vbirdgroup
for username in vbird1 vbird2 vbird3 vbird4 vbird5
do
  useradd -G vbirdgroup $username
  echo “password” | passwd –stdin $username
done

[root@linuxidc ~]# sh au.sh
Changing password for user vbird1.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
Changing password for user vbird2.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
Changing password for user vbird3.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
Changing password for user vbird4.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
Changing password for user vbird5.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

2
扫一眼家目录
[root@linuxidc ~]# ll /home/
total 28
drwx——. 4 vbird1      vbird1      4096 Dec  1 15:57 vbird1
drwx——. 4 vbird2      vbird2      4096 Dec  1 15:57 vbird2
drwx——. 4 vbird3      vbird3      4096 Dec  1 15:57 vbird3
drwx——. 4 vbird4      vbird4      4096 Dec  1 15:57 vbird4
drwx——. 4 vbird5      vbird5      4096 Dec  1 15:57 vbird5
drwx——. 4 zxw        zxw        4096 Sep 18 18:03 zxw

瞅一下vb1的组和id
[root@linuxidc ~]# id vbird1
uid=503(vbird1) gid=504(vbird1) groups=504(vbird1),503(vbirdgroup)

3
给刚建的这几位准备一个用于这几个用户都能访问的目录/home/vbirdgroup
[root@linuxidc ~]# mkdir /home/vbirdgroup
[root@linuxidc ~]# chgrp vbirdgroup /home/vbirdgroup/
[root@linuxidc ~]# chmod 2770 /home/vbirdgroup/

[root@linuxidc ~]# ll -d /home/linuxidc/
drwx—rwx. 5 linuxidc linuxidc 4096 Sep 18 14:13 /home/linuxidc/

设置第四位,它位于三位权限序列的前面,第四位数字取值是4,2,1,代表意思如下:
4,执行时设置用户ID,用于授权给基于文件属主的进程,而不是给创建此进程的用户。
2,执行时设置用户组ID,用于授权给基于文件所在组的进程,而不是基于创建此进程的用户。
1,设置粘着位。

4
现在 磁盘配额概要
在/home下进行quota,需要如下:
  文件系统的支持
  quota 数据文件建置
  quota 启动
  建立用户 quota 信息

5
将 /home 独立一个分区,因为 quota 仅支持 filesystem 而不支持单一目录
/home上增加usrquota,grpquota
[root@localhost ~]# nl /etc/fstab
     
    1  #
    2  # /etc/fstab
    3  # Created by anaconda on Tue Dec  2 18:52:50 2014
    4  #
    5  # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under
‘/dev/disk’
    6  # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8)
for more info
    7  #
    8  UUID=93cd7207-78c4-4a95-be1b-7451772c21ad /                     
ext4    defaults        1 1
    9  UUID=9a982f8d-d590-49f2-9cf1-e07a5b8238dd /boot                 
ext4    defaults        1 2
    10  UUID=c8939b59-9a73-45fa-bd5a-f016a5aa631e /home                 
ext4    defaults,usrquota,grpquota        1 2
    11  UUID=1f3d9eaf-e140-47ab-ae99-fcf1516d2070 swap                 
  swap    defaults        0 0
    12  tmpfs                  /dev/shm                tmpfs  defaults 
      0 0
    13  devpts                  /dev/pts                devpts 
gid=5,mode=620  0 0
    14  sysfs                  /sys                    sysfs  defaults 
      0 0
    15  proc                    /proc                  proc    defaults 
      0 0

6
卸载、加载/home,并查看/home项
[root@localhost ~]# umount /home/; mount -a
[root@localhost ~]# mount | grep home
/dev/sda3 on /home type ext4 (rw,usrquota,grpquota)

7
quotacheck生成配额文件,结果如下
[root@localhost ~]# qutoacheck -avug
-bash: qutoacheck: command not found
[root@localhost ~]#

8
查找、安装 quota
[root@localhost ~]# find / -name qutoacheck
[root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa | grep quota
quota-3.17-20.el6.x86_64

安装
[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install quota-3.17-20.el6.x86_64
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: centos.ustc.edu.cn
 * extras: centos.ustc.edu.cn
 * updates: centos.ustc.edu.cn
base                                                                   
                                      | 3.7 kB    00:00   
base/primary_db                                                       
                                        | 4.6 MB    00:29   
extras                                                                 
                                      | 3.4 kB    00:00   
extras/primary_db                                                     
                                        |  29 kB    00:00   
updates                                                                 
                                      | 3.4 kB    00:00   
updates/primary_db                                                     
                                      | 910 kB    00:05   
Setting up Install Process
Nothing to do
[root@localhost ~]#

9
开启限制,生成用户和组限制文件
[root@localhost ~]# quotacheck -avug
quotacheck: Your kernel probably supports journaled quota but you are
not using it. Consider switching to journaled quota to avoid running
quotacheck after an unclean shutdown.
quotacheck: Scanning /dev/sda3 [/home] done
quotacheck: Cannot stat old user quota file /home/aquota.user: No such
file or directory. Usage will not be substracted.
quotacheck: Cannot stat old group quota file /home/aquota.group: No such
file or directory. Usage will not be substracted.
quotacheck: Cannot stat old user quota file /home/aquota.user: No such
file or directory. Usage will not be substracted.
quotacheck: Cannot stat old group quota file /home/aquota.group: No such
file or directory. Usage will not be substracted.
quotacheck: Checked 33 directories and 18 files
quotacheck: Old file not found.
quotacheck: Old file not found.

[root@localhost ~]# quotaon -avug
/dev/sda3 [/home]: group quotas turned on
/dev/sda3 [/home]: user quotas turned on

10
增加配额限制
[root@localhost ~]# edquota -u vbird1
Disk quotas for user vbird1 (uid 501):
  Filesystem                  blocks      soft      hard    inodes   
soft    hard
  /dev/sda3                        32      8000      10000          8   
    0        0
单位是KB
[root@localhost ~]# edquota -u vbird2
。。。

[root@localhost ~]# edquota -p vbird1 vbird2 vbird3 vbird4 vbird5

11
查看配额
[root@localhost ~]# repquota -au
*** Report for user quotas on device /dev/sda3
Block grace time: 7days; Inode grace time: 7days
                        Block limits                File limits

User            used    soft    hard  grace    used  soft  hard  grace

root      —      24      0      0              3    0    0     
zxw      —      32      0      0              8    0    0     
vbird1    —      32    8000  10000              8    0    0     
vbird2    —      32    8000  10000              8    0    0     
vbird3    —      32    8000  10000              8    0    0     
vbird4    —      32    8000  10000              8    0    0     
vbird5    —      32    8000  10000              8    0    0 

12
开始测试
[vbird1@localhost ~]$ ll -h
total 7.6M
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 1.7M Dec  2 14:01 cont.txt
-rw-r–r–. 1 root  root    49K Dec  2 13:59 install.log
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 5.8M Dec  2 14:02 v.txt
[vbird1@localhost ~]$

vb1写文件到达到软限制
[vbird1@localhost ~]$ nl cont.txt >> v.txt
sda3: warning, user block quota exceeded.
达到软限制,警告
[vbird1@localhost ~]$ ll -h
total 9.5M
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 1.7M Dec  2 14:01 cont.txt
-rw-r–r–. 1 root  root    49K Dec  2 13:59 install.log
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 7.7M Dec  2 14:02 v.txt

vb1写文件到达到硬限制
[vbird1@localhost ~]$ nl cont.txt >> v.txt
sda3: write failed, user block limit reached.
nl: write error: Disk quota exceeded
达到硬限制,报错
[vbird1@localhost ~]$
[vbird1@localhost ~]$ ll -h
total 9.8M
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 1.7M Dec  2 14:01 cont.txt
-rw-r–r–. 1 root  root    49K Dec  2 13:59 install.log
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 8.1M Dec  2 14:03 v.txt

vb1再写就不让写了
[vbird1@localhost ~]$ nl cont.txt >> v.txt
nl: write error: Disk quota exceeded
[vbird1@localhost ~]$ ll -h
total 9.8M
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 1.7M Dec  2 14:01 cont.txt
-rw-r–r–. 1 root  root    49K Dec  2 13:59 install.log
-rw-rw-r–. 1 vbird1 vbird1 8.1M Dec  2 14:03 v.txt

更多CentOS相关信息见CentOS 专题页面 http://www.linuxidc.com/topicnews.aspx?tid=14

本文永久更新链接地址:http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2015-01/111845.htm

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